Computer Networking
About Lesson

An IP address, or simply an “IP,” is a unique address that identifies a device on the Internet or a local network. It allows a system to be recognized by other systems connected via the Internet protocol. There are two primary types of IP address formats used today — IPv4 and IPv6.


An IPv4 address consist of four sets of numbers from 0 to 255, separated by three dots. For example, the IP address of is This number is used to identify the hackonology website on the Internet. When you visit in your web browser, the DNS system automatically translates the domain name “” to the IP address “”.

There are three classes of IPv4 address sets that can be registered through the InterNIC. The smallest is Class C, which consists of 256 IP addresses (e.g. — where xxx is 0 to 255). The next largest is Class B, which contains 65,536 IP addresses (e.g. The largest block is Class A, which contains 16,777,216 IP addresses (e.g.

Subnetting :

Subnetting is the practice of dividing a network into two or more smaller networks. It increases routing efficiency, enhances the security of the network and reduces the size of the broadcast domain. In easy term “Subnetting is logically dividing the network by extending the 1’s used in SNM“. Advantages: Can divide network in smaller parts, Restrict, Broadcast traffic, Security, Simplified Administration

The total number of IPv4 addresses ranges from to Because 256 = 28, there are 28 x 4 or 4,294,967,296 possible IP addresses. While this may seem like a large number, it is no longer enough to cover all the devices connected to the Internet around the world. Therefore, many devices now use IPv6 addresses.



The IPv6 address format is much different than the IPv4 format. It contains eight sets of four hexadecimal digits and uses colons to separate each block. An example of an IPv6 address is: 2602:0445:0000:0000:a93e:5ca7:81e2:5f9d. There are 3.4 x 1038 or 340 undecillion) possible IPv6 addresses, meaning we shouldn’t run out of IPv6 addresses anytime soon.

Why we need IPV6 when we have IPV4?

IPv6 is designed to be the successor to IPv4

Depletion of IPv4 address space has been the motivating factor for moving to IPv6

Projections show that all five RIRs will run out of IPv4 addresses between 2015 and 2020

With an increasing Internet population, a limited IPv4 address space, issues with NAT and an Internet of things, the time has come to begin the transition to IPv6!

IPv4 has theoretical maximum of 4.3 billion addresses plus private addresses in combination with NAT

IPv6 larger 128-bit address space providing for 340 undecillion addresses

IPv6 fixes the limitations of IPv4 and include additional enhancements such as ICMPv6

Who provide us IP address?

The IP address space is managed globally by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and by five regional Internet registries (RIRs) responsible in their designated territories for assignment to local Internet registries, such as Internet service providers, and other end users.

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